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Purpose and Desire: What Makes Something "Alive" and Why Modern Darwinism Has Failed to Explain It
by J. Scott Turner

Biologist J. Scott Turner offers a pioneering new model for defining life, drawing on the work of Claude Bernard, a contemporary of Darwin who was seen as a champion within evolutionary circles. Turner contends that all living things share the distinctive qualities of purpose and desire to maintain homeostasis and sustain life, which draws upon Bernard’s theory of “vitalism.”